Land-Surface Atmosphere Interactions: Observations and Data Sets
CASES-97 (Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study of '97)
This is a continuing collaborative research project funded by NASA Land-Surface Hydrology Program. Participants include David Yates and Fei Chen of RAP/NCAR; Margaret LeMone of MMM/NCAR; Steve Oncley of ATD/NCAR; Richard Grossman of the University of Colorado, and H. Nagai at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The project's goal is to understand the impacts of surface heterogeneity in soil moisture and surface characteristics on the transport of temperature and moisture in the atmospheric boundary layer.
This research project focuses on the parameterization of subgrid-scale variability for mesoscale and large-scale atmospheric models. One-month observations obtained from CASES-97 were used to create a gridded multi-scale (1, 5, and 10 km) data set over an area of 71x74 km2. Three land-surface models were used to simulate the surface heat flux at these scales. These land-surface models include the relatively simple Oregon State University Land Surface Model (OSULSM), the National Center for Atmospheric Research Land Surface Model (NCARLSM), and the more complex SOLVEG with nine canopy layers and seven soil layers. Preliminary verification demonstrates that these land-surface models reasonably captured the spatial heterogeneity caused by rainfall and surface characteristics at small scales. (See figure below).
Six-hour daytime average and standard deviation of latent heat fluxes for the period 16 April to 22 May 1997. Models are indicated by name; CASES are surface station observations. Surface stations 1, 2, and 8 are located over grassland/pasture sites, 3 and 4 over sparsely vegetated surface, and 5, 6, and 7 over winter wheat sites.
Aircraft BLH Mission Information (broken link)
LeMone, M.A., F. Chen, J.G. Alfieri, M. Tewari, B. Geerts, Q. Miao, R.L. Grossman, and R.L. Coulter, 2006: Influence of land cover, soil moisture, and terrain on the horizontal distribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes and boundary layer structure in southeast Kansas during IHOP_2002 and CASES-97. J. Hydrometeorology. In press.
Alfieri, J.G., D. Niyogi, M.A. LeMone, F. Chen, and S. Fall, 2006: A simple reclassification method for correcting uncertainty in land use/land cover datasets used with land surface models., Submitted to IMPA Special Issue for Atmospheric Environment.
Miller, N.L., A.W. King, M.A. Miller, E.P. Springer, M.L. Wesely, K.E. Bashford, M.E. Conrad, K. Costigan, P.N. Foster, H.K. Gibbs, J. Jin, G. Klazura, B.M. Lesht, M.V. Machavaram, F. Pan, J. Song, D. Troyan, and R.A. Washington-Allen, 2005: The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 359-374.
Grossman, R.L., D. Yates, M. LeMone, M.L. Wesely, J. Song, 2004: Observed effects of horizontal surface temperature variations on the atmosphere over a midwest watershed during CASES-97. J. Geophys. Res., 110, DO6117, doi:10.1029/2004JD004542.
Chen, F., D. N. Yates, H. Nagai, M. A. LeMone, K. Ikeda, and R. L. Grossman, 2003. Land-Surface Heterogeneity in the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97). Part-I: Comparing Modeled Surface Flux Maps With Surface-Tower and Aircraft Measurements. . J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 196-218.
Yates, D.N., F. Chen, and H. Nagai, 2003. Land-Surface Heterogeneity in the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97). Part-II: Analysis of spatial heterogeneity and their scaling. J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 219-234.
LeMone, M., R. Grossman, F. Chen, K. Ikeda, and D.Yates, 2003. Choosing the averaging interval for comparison of observed and modeled fluxes along aircraft transects over a heterogeneous surface. . J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 179-195.
LeMone, M.A., K. Ikeda, R.L. Grossman, and Mathias Rotach, 2003: Horizontal Variability of 2-m temperature at night. CASES-99 Special Issue . J. Atmos. Sci. , 60, 2431-2449.
Song, J. and M.L. Wesely, 2003: On comparison of modeled surface flux variations to aircraft observations . Agric. Forest Meteor. , 117, 159-171.
LeMone, M., R. Grossman, R.T. McMillen, K.N. Liou, S. Ou, S. McKeen, W. Angevine, K. Ikeda, and F. Chen, 2002. CASES-97: Late morning warming and moistening of the convective mixed layer over the Walnut River watershed. Boundary Layer Meteorol , 104, 1-52.
Yates, D.N., F. Chen, R. Qualls, M. LeMone, and S. Oncley, 2001: A Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES) Dataset for Analyzing and Parameterizing the Effects of Land Surface Heterogeneity on Area-Averaged Surface Heat Fluxe. J. Appl. Meteorol., 40, 921-937.
Wesely, M. L., J. Song, R. T. McMillen, and T. P. Meyers, 2001: Effects of soil moisture variations on deposition velocities above vegetation . Water, Air, and Soil Pollution Focus , 1, 1-4.
Yates, D.N., F. Chen, M.A. LeMone, R. Qualls, S.P. Oncley, R.L. Grossman, and E.L. Brandes, 2001 A Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES) dataset for analyzing and parameterizing the effects of land-surface heterogeneity on area-averaged surface heat fluxes . J. Appl. Meteorol. , 40, 921-937.
Song, J, M. L. Wesely, M.A. LeMone, and R.L. Grossman, 2000: Estimating watershed evapotranspiration with PASS. Part II: Moisture budgets during drydown periods . J. Hydrometeor. , 1, 462-473.
Coulter, R. L., G. Klazura, B. M. Lesht, J. D. Shannon, D. L. Sisterson, and M. L. Wesely, 1999: The Argonne Boundary Layer Experiments facility: Using minisodars to complement a wind profiler network. Meteorol. and Atmos. Physics , 71, 53-59.